A major strength of this study is the inclusion of only primiparous women. A detailed study protocol was developed outlining procedures for managing recruitment and follow-up available from the investigators on requestwhich also became the manual for training research staff working on the study.
Women consenting to participate in extended follow-up phase 2 will be followed up six and twelve months after any subsequent births, and when their first child is four years old.
Moreover, a higher degree of tear was seen with higher birth weight, longer second stage of labour and longer duration of active birth. That both mediolateral episiotomy and midline episiotomy are independent risk factors for incident cases of urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, persisting perineal pain and sexual problems after spontaneous vaginal birth.
Precise definitions have been developed and pilot tested for all obstetric data items being collected from medical records and Q2. Ideally, sexual function should have been established before pregnancy but this would require another study design.
Urol Int ; 72 —7. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Open in a separate window.
Project i Broadsheet Number 1. Cycling Accident Claims. Motorcycle Accident Claims. Health and wellbeing of women aged 18 to 23 in and Findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Wallace, J. Huffam, S.
Glazener CMA. Additional File 2: Table 3 Birth cohort studies assessing role of obstetric risk factors for urinary incontinence in pregnancy and after childbirth. Melzak P: The McGill pain questionnaire: major properties and scoring methods.
Epidemiology ; That socio-economic factors such as low income, single marital status, and non-English speaking background will decrease the probability of women experiencing physical and emotional health problems disclosing these health problems to primary and specialist health professionals.
Considering our hypothesis that vaginal birth assisted by forceps or vacuum extraction is an 'independent' risk factor for urinary incontinence, the diagram illustrates the multiple covariates and combinations of covariates preceding the delivery and subsequent to delivery that may mediate the relationship between the mode of birth and the outcome of urinary incontinence.