Modulation of short term and long term memory by steroid sexual hormones. Post-synaptic density PSD binding capacity of G-protein-coupled Receptor 30 GPR30an estrogen receptor that can be identified in hippocampal dendritic spines. Neurobiol Learn Mem 96 : — Similar to the original male study Packard et al.
Routine noninvasive collection of fecal and urine samples did not warrant additional institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approvals nor did it affect the daily routine of animals used in this study. A final option would be to ignore the cycle entirely. Comparison between basal and apical dendritic spines in estrogen-induced rapid spinogenesis of CA1 principal neurons in the adult hippocampus.
For example, chronic systemic E 2 treatment accelerated extinction of conditioned taste aversion in both male and female rats Yuan and Chambers GPER activation also increases potassium-evoked acetylcholine release in the ovariectomized rat hippocampus in a manner similar to E 2 treatment Hormone secondary sex characteristics males taking in Milwaukee et al.
Open in a separate window. Practitioners also need to address the complex issues of contraception, future fertility, disease prevention, and maintaining adequate bone mass. A single post-training infusion of E 2 into the either brain region reliably enhances object recognition and object placement memory consolidation in young and middle-aged ovariectomized mice Fernandez et al.
A major finding in this study was that captive male lions appear to reach puberty at a younger age than wild counterparts.
However, another study that administered pretraining intrahippocampal infusions of estradiol valerate or testosterone found no beneficial effect of either hormone Moradpour et al. In contrast to the in vivo data, however, studies using hippocampal slices from adult male rats report that the density of dendritic spines in CA1 was increased within 2 h of bath application of E 2 Murakami et al.
SB, orange circles; SB, green triangles. E 2 will be the primary focus here because considerably more is known about the effects of E 2 on memory than any other sex steroid hormone. NeuroReport 9 : — In females, breasts are a manifestation of higher levels of estrogen ; estrogen also widens the pelvis and increases the amount of body fat in hips, thighs, buttocks, and breasts.